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2020-05-31 22:04:42
@China Daily



General Tso's Chicken左宗棠將軍雞

Most people who grow up in China's mainland have never heard of thisdish that was created by a Taiwan chef in the 50s, and in fact it hasnot the slightest bit of relevance to Zuo Zongtang (the General Tso forwhich the dish isnamed).大多數在中國大陸長大的人從來沒聽說過這道由50年代一位中國台灣廚師做的菜,事實上它與左宗棠(這道菜名字的來源)一點關系都沒有。

In the 1970s, the dish's creator brought it to America where it wasadored by Henry Kissinger and suddenly its popularity exploded. Chineserestaurants all over started making their own imitations of the dish.The dish's flavor slowly morphed from the original salty and spicyprofile into the sweet one that is presumed to be loved by so manyAmericans until it reached its current state as just a kind of sweet andsourchicken.上世紀70年代,這道菜的創造者把它帶到了美國,受到了亨利·基辛格的喜歡,於是突然,它的受歡迎程度激增。各地的中餐館都開始仿制這道菜。味道慢慢地從原來的鹹味和辣味轉變成了甜味。有人認為很多美國人喜歡甜味,一直到它變成了現在的酸甜味雞肉。

What I can assure you is that natives in Hunan, General Tso'shometown, have never heard of this so-called Hunandish.我敢跟你打包票左宗棠故鄉湖南的人民從來沒聽過這道所謂的湖南菜。


Chop Suey"雜碎"

When Chinese people talk about "chop suey" they mean animal organschopped up together and eaten, but westerners don't eat organs andoffal, so the American "chop suey" refers to a mismatched mess offoodstuffs such as cabbage, pork strips, bean sprouts, celery, greenpepper, onion all fried uptogether.中國人所說的“雜碎”是指動物器官一起切碎食用,而西方人不吃器官和內臓,所以美國人所說的“雜碎”是指卷心菜、豬肉條、豆芽、芹菜、青椒、洋蔥等不相配的一堆食物一起炒成的。

As one can well imagine, there is no standard for this dish, anyrestaurant can take whatever leftovers they have and turn it into chopsuey. Liang Qichao, who during 1903 visited the US, tried the dish andleft us with the following evaluation: "Those eaters of chop suey lackculinary skill. Chinese people would never touch such adish."可以想象,這道菜是沒有標准的,任何一家餐館都可以把邊角料做成雜碎。梁啟超在1903年訪問美國時,嘗過這道菜,留給美國人的評價是:“那些吃這道菜的人缺乏烹飪技巧。中國人永遠不會碰這樣的菜。”

[This is] an "imagined authentic Chinese food" that in fact had neverexisted in China. For Americans it became the iconic Chinese dish inthe mid-1900s, coming to be regarded as more and more authentic, even asit became less and less Chinese in its culinaryformat.(這是)一種“想象出來的正宗中餐”,實際上在中國根本不存在。對美國人來說,這道菜在20世紀中期成為了標志性的中國菜,盡管它的烹飪形式越來越不中國,但它卻越來越被認為是正宗。


Spring Rolls春卷

Spring rolls are probably one of the most popular appetizers found inforeign Chinese restaurants. On the surface, a crispy, golden shellfilled mainly with bean sprouts and cabbage, but when it comes down toputting it in your mouth, you'll find that they are usually fried intooblivion and if you can manage to make it to the center of thiscudgel-like snack you'll likely be left with a mouthful of oil. Truespring rolls should have a very thin skin, abundant filling and just alittleoil.春卷可能是外國中餐館最受歡迎的開胃菜之一。表面上看,春卷脆脆的、有金黃色的外殼,裡面主要是豆芽和卷心菜,但當你把它放進嘴裡時,你通常會發現,春卷炸過了頭,要是你咬到這根短棒狀的食物中間,你很可能會咬出一嘴油。正宗的春卷應該是薄皮少油,有豐富的餡料。

還有很多在國外流行,在中國卻少有人知道的“中國菜”。China Hightlights網站總結了幾樣讓大家避雷:

Chicken or beef broccoli stir fry: Broccoli isn't native to China and not generally eaten.雞肉或牛肉炒西蘭花:西蘭花不是中國土生土長的食材,而且並沒有很多人吃。

Crab cheesy wontons or other types of cheese wontons: Anythingcontaining cheese isn't authentic since the cheese was eaten in very fewregions. Most Chinese are lactose intolerant. When the Chinese makewontons, they use differentingredients.蟹肉芝士餛飩或者其他形式的芝士餛飩:所有有芝士的食物都不是正宗中國菜,因為中國只有極少數地方常吃芝士。大多數中國人都有乳糖不耐受。中國人做餛飩會用到不同的食材。

Chinese salads: If you find fresh salad on the menu in a Chineserestaurant abroad, it definitely isn't Chinese. This was nevertraditionally eaten, and is still rare except in foreign restaurants inChina.中國沙拉:如果你在海外中國餐館的菜單上能看到新鮮沙拉,那肯定不是正宗中國菜。中國傳統菜系根本就不吃沙拉,哪怕有也很少,只存在於中國的外國菜餐館裡。

Iced tea: A lot of Chinese restaurants outside the country serve icedtea. Freshly made black iced tea with ice and no sugar or sugar(Chinese would call it red tea) is basically unknown in the mainlandexcept in a touristrestaurant.冰茶:海外中餐館很多都有冰茶。新鮮加冰的紅茶加糖也好不加糖也罷,在中國大陸幾乎找不到,除非是在游客飯店裡。

Beef chow mien: Depending on the region, something like what you'veeaten served on fried noodles might be available, but the flavor isprobably muchdifferent.牛肉炒面:要看地方,可能會有你吃過的食材蓋在炒面上端上來,但味道(跟你吃的同樣食材)很有可能大有差別。




According to the report released by Meituan-Dianping, China's largeston-demand service platform, there are over 600,000 Chinese restaurantsoverseas. In 2017, at least 16 renowned Chinese catering brands,including Peking Duck brand DaDong and Qing Feng Steamed Dumpling Shop,tapped successfully into the foreignmarket.據中國最大的外賣平台美團點評發布的報告顯示,目前在海外有超過60萬家中餐館。2017年,北京烤鴨品牌大董、慶豐包子鋪等至少16個中國知名餐飲品牌成功打入國外市場。

When DaDong opened its restaurant in New York at the end of lastyear, 2,500 reservations were booked within the first two hours itbecame available, which reflected the extreme popularity of traditionalChinese foodoverseas.去年年底,大董在紐約開設餐廳時,在開始營業的前兩個小時內就收到了2500份訂座,這反映了中國傳統食品在海外極其受歡迎。

The report also pointed out that hotpot is the most popular food inthe foreign market and made up 34.2 percent of the total. Sichuancuisine, as well as some Chinese snacks and fast food followed, came insecond and third,respectively.報告還指出,火鍋是國外市場最受歡迎的品類,占總量的34.2%。川菜,以及一些中國小吃和快餐緊隨其後,分別排在第二和第三位。

但還是有些菜,即使特色十足,卻仍未廣泛走出國門。旅游網站The Travel就總結了一些:

Staple of Chinese Street Food: BBQ Meat中國街頭食物必點:烤肉

One of the meals you can find wandering the streets of China is kaorou (or barbecued meat). You can find this skewered meat in restaurants,as well as street vendor carts. They're known for being quite spicy andcooked over coals. Kao rou can consist of almost any kind of meat,including braised pork, chicken, beef, and even other internalorgans!你可以在中國的街道上找到一種食物——烤肉。你可以在餐館裡找到這種肉串,還有街頭小販的手推車上也有。它們以辛辣聞名,而且是用木炭烤的。烤肉幾乎可以包含任何種類的肉,包括燉豬肉、雞肉、牛肉,甚至內臓。

Cold Vegetable Dish涼菜

This dish, named liang cai, literally translates to "cold dish". So,it makes sense that it would be a hodge-podge of ingredients. It'susually an assortment of cold vegetables, such as cucumbers, greenbeans, and cabbage. But there is no fixed recipe for it. For flavor, thevegetables are usually topped with a sauce, as well as tofu andpeanuts. If you're in the mood for something healthy, this is a greatchoice!這道菜名為涼菜,字面意思是"colddish"。所以,可以想見涼菜會包含各種各樣的食材,通常是各種冷蔬菜,如黃瓜、青豆和卷心菜等,但也沒有固定的配方。為了調味,蔬菜通常在上面加上醬汁,豆腐和花生。如果你想吃健康的食物,這是一個很好的選擇!

Tofu Pudding豆花(豆腐腦)

Tofu, all by itself, is quite bland, tasteless, and requires spicesto make it flavorful. However, tofu is a staple of Chinese cuisine andcan even be found in their desserts! A popular dessert is tofu pudding,which consists of soft tofu covered in either sugar or a sweet gingersauce. If you want your pudding to be a little more savory, you can topit off with soy sauce, chili, andpeanuts.豆腐本身淡而無味,需要調味料才能增味。不過,豆腐是中國菜的主角之一,甚至可以出現在甜點中!有一種很受歡迎的甜點是豆花,它是由軟豆腐和糖或甜姜汁做成。如果你想讓豆花更有味一點,你可以在上面加上醬油、辣椒和花生。

It's Not Quite Noodles: Mutton Stew這不是面:羊肉泡饃

This dish, from the city of Xi'an, is a traditional stew called paomo. Although it's usually made with mutton, you can also use pork orbeef. The interesting quality about this stew is that, instead ofnoodles, there are pieces of unleavened bread floating in the broth. Onthe side, you'll usually find pickled garlic and chili sauce tocompliment the stew. It's a great dish if you want something a littleheartier to keep youwarm.這道菜來自西安,是一道傳統的燉菜,叫泡饃。雖然通常是用羊肉做的,但也可以用豬肉或牛肉。這道燉菜的有趣之處在於,肉湯裡沒有面條,而是漂浮著一些未發酵的面疙瘩。在它旁邊,你通常會發現有醃蒜和辣椒醬可以作為泡饃的配菜。如果你想吃點熱乎乎的東西來保暖的話,這是一道很好的菜。

The Most Versatile of Dishes: Baozi最萬能的菜:包子

When it comes to choosing whether to have a meal or dessert... whynot both? Baozi are traditional Chinese steamed buns that are known forbeing delightfully fluffy. The buns are usually filled with vegetablesand meat, usually barbecue pork. However, if you're looking forsomething a little sweeter, baozi can be filled with red bean paste orcustard. If you're ever feeling indecisive about what to eat, this mealis versatile andsatisfying.在選擇是吃頓飯還是吃點甜食的時候……為什麼,不可以兩者都吃呢?包子是中國傳統食物,有點像圓面包,十分蓬松。包子裡通常有蔬菜和肉,一般是烤肉。不過,如果你想吃甜一點的,包子裡可以是紅豆沙或者流心奶黃。如果你對吃什麼感到難以抉擇,包子就很百搭而且令人滿足。


offal [ˈɔːfl] n (食用的)動物內臓

sprout [spraʊt] n 苗;新芽;嫩枝

hodge-podge [ˈhɒdʒpɒdʒ] n 大雜燴

hearty [ˈhɑːti] adj 豐盛的;親切的;強烈的

versatile ['vɜː(r)sətaɪl] adj.通用的


來源:中國日報 thetravel; echinacities; China Highlights
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